By L. Ateras. Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science.

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Type Ia sensory axons from the spin- most general level cheap 20mg tadalafil, it produces rapid corrections of motor dle carry action potentials to the spinal cord purchase 10mg tadalafil amex, where they output in the moment-to-moment control of movement. It synapse directly on motor neurons of the same (homony- also forms the basis for postural reflexes, which maintain mous) muscle that was stretched and on motor neurons of body position despite a varying range of loads and/or ex- synergistic (heteronymous) muscles. Monosynaptic type Ia synapses occur predominantly on al- The Inverse Myotatic Reflex. The active contraction of a pha motor neurons; gamma motor neurons seemingly lack muscle also causes reflex inhibition of the contraction. Active muscle contraction stimulates Golgi tendon antagonist muscles (see Fig 5. This synaptic pattern, organs, producing action potentials in the type Ib afferent called reciprocal inhibition, serves to coordinate muscles axons. Those axons synapse on inhibitory interneurons that of opposing function around a joint. Secondary (type II) influence homonymous and heteronymous motor neurons spindle afferent fibers also synapse with homonymous mo- and on excitatory interneurons that influence motor neu- tor neurons, providing excitatory input through both rons of antagonists (Fig 5. Golgi tendon The function of the inverse myotatic reflex appears to organ input via type Ib axons has an inhibitory influence on be a tension feedback system that can adjust the strength homonymous motor neurons. The inverse my- The myotatic reflex has two components: a phasic part, otatic reflex does not have the same function as recipro- exemplified by tendon jerks, and a tonic part, thought to be cal inhibition. Reciprocal inhibition acts primarily on the important for maintaining posture. The phasic component antagonist, while the inverse myotatic reflex acts on the is more familiar. Primary spindle afferent fibers probably flexes act together to maintain optimal responses in the mediate the tendon jerk, with secondary afferent fibers antigravity muscles during postural adjustments. Ipsilateral extensor that inhibit agonist motor neurons and excite the motor neurons motor neurons are inhibited. Cutaneous stimulation— such as touch, pressure, heat, cold, or tissue damage—can The Spinal Cord Can Produce elicit a flexor withdrawal reflex. This reflex consists of a Basic Locomotor Actions contraction of flexors and a relaxation of extensors in the stimulated limb. The action may be accompanied by a con- For locomotion, muscle action must occur in the limbs, traction of the extensors on the contralateral side. The ax- but the posture of the trunk must also be controlled to ons of cutaneous sensory receptors synapse on interneurons provide a foundation from which the limb muscles can in the dorsal horn. For example, when a human takes a step forward, not excite the motor neurons of flexor muscles and inhibit only must the advancing leg flex at the hip and knee, the those of extensor muscles. Collaterals of interneurons cross opposite leg and bilateral truncal muscles must also be the midline to excite contralateral extensor motor neurons properly activated to prevent collapse of the body as and inhibit flexors (Fig. Responsibility There are two types of flexor withdrawal reflexes: those for the different functions that come together in success- that result from innocuous stimuli and those that result from ful locomotion is divided between several levels of the potentially injurious stimulation.

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