By K. Angir. School of the Visual Arts.

PROTEIN MAKES A COMEBACK Countless clinical trials by the most accredited researchers and universities in the country have concluded that buy caverta 100 mg mastercard, lo and behold cheap caverta 100mg visa, low carb is the real deal. THE ULTIMATE BODY NUTRITION PLAN 113 TLFeBOOK Though most had sought to discredit the low carb phenomenon, all have since realized that restricting carbohydrate intake is no mere fad diet, but rather is a true scientific advancement for the new millennium. At the time, scientists blamed the high amounts of saturated fats in the American diet for our bulging waistlines and skyrocketing rates of heart dis- ease. A plethora of low-fat and nonfat products soon hit the supermarket shelves, from nonfat cookies to baked potato chips. Americans caught on quickly to the new trend and cut back on meat, switched from whole milk to skim, and gave up their chocolate chip cookies for reduced fat cookies. As more and more people turned to pasta, rice, bagels, and nonfat snacks, more and more people got fat. She came in one day and proudly announced that she had eaten really well the night before: just one box of nonfat crackers, a one-pound contain- er of nonfat cottage cheese, and a box of reduced-fat cookies. In her mind, she had eaten really well because she had consumed almost no grams of fat. This is just one classic example of how Americans were really duped in the 1980s and the 1990s into believing that fat was the only culprit making us fat. Although some people certainly were able to lose weight during these low-fat years, the vast majority of Americans porked out. Perplexed, scien- tists went back to the drawing board, trying to figure out where things went wrong. After many years of research, scientists have made some interesting discoveries. They reasoned that sim- ply switching from high-fat foods to high-carbohydrate foods would auto- matically lower the overall caloric intake, thus resulting in weight loss. First, thanks to the addition of sugar and high fructose corn syrup, many low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods are not lower in calories than their high-fat 114 THE ULTIMATE NEW YORK BODY PLAN TLFeBOOK counterparts. For instance, to make low-fat cookies taste good, manufactur- ers added more sugar in place of the fat. From a calorie standpoint, low-fat cookies are just as bad for your waistline as high-fat cookies. Second, most people eat a larger portion size of low-fat foods than they do of high-fat foods, possibly under the false belief that low fat equals low calorie. If you were scooping some low-fat ice cream into a bowl, would you scoop out the same amount as you would high-fat ice cream? High-carb, low-fat foods are not as satisfying as their original counterparts. In the end, many people consume more calories on a low-fat diet than when on a high fat diet.

After myocardial infarction best 100mg caverta, the drugs help proven safe for people older than 80 years of age or those protect the heart from reinfarction and decrease mortality rates with severe heart failure order caverta 50mg with visa. A possible mechanism is preventing or de- creasing the incidence of catecholamine-induced dysrhyth- mias. In congestive heart failure (CHF), beta blockers have a INDIVIDUAL ANTIADRENERGIC DRUGS limited role and require careful monitoring on the part of the physician and the nurse. Administration of beta blockers may These drugs are described in the following sections. Trade acutely worsen the condition of persons with congestive heart names, clinical indications, and dosage ranges are listed in failure by blocking the sympathetic stimulation that helps to Drugs at a Glance: Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists and Blocking 286 SECTION 3 DRUGS AFFECTING THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Agents and in Drugs at a Glance: Beta-Adrenergic Blocking 1 week. It is metabolized extensively; very little unchanged drug is excreted in urine. Guanfacine is well absorbed and widely distributed, with ap- Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists proximately 70% bound to plasma proteins. Peak plasma lev- and Blocking Agents els occur in 1 to 4 hours and the half-life is 10 to 30 hours. Approximately half is metabolized and the metabolites and Alpha2-adrenergic agonists include clonidine, guanabenz, unchanged drug are excreted in urine. These drugs produce similar ther- half-life, guanfacine can be given once daily. Methyldopa is apeutic and adverse effects but differ in their pharmacokinet- an older drug with low to moderate absorption, peak plasma ics and frequency of administration. Oral clonidine reduces levels in 2 to 4 hours, and peak antihypertensive effects in ap- blood pressure within 1 hour, reaches peak plasma levels in proximately 2 days. When discontinued, blood pressure rises 3 to 5 hours, and has a plasma half-life of approximately 12 in approximately 2 days. Intravenous administration reduces to 16 hours (longer with renal impairment). Methyl- half the oral dose is metabolized in the liver; the remainder is dopa is metabolized to some extent in the liver but is largely excreted unchanged in urine. In clients with renal impairment, blood therapeutic plasma levels are reached in 2 to 3 days and last pressure–lowering effects may be pronounced and pro- Drugs at a Glance: Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists and Blocking Agents Generic/Trade Name Clinical Indications Routes and Dosage Ranges Alpha2-Agonists Clonidine (Catapres) Hypertension PO 0. Guanabenz (Wytensin) Hypertension PO 4 mg twice daily, increased by 4–8 mg/d every 1–2 wk if neces- sary to a maximal dose of 32 mg twice daily. Guanfacine (Tenex) Hypertension PO 1 mg daily at bedtime, increased to 2 mg after 3–4 wk, then to 3 mg if necessary.

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